Sex, Fat, & Weight Loss | The Gland That Controls It All

Sex, Fat, & Weight Loss | The Gland That Controls It All

You have a small gland in your body that Weighs about 20 to 30 grams yet despite Its small size it has some of those Powerful effects over your metabolism And how you utilize energy let me give You an idea here when this gland isn’t Secreting hormones in the proper amounts Your metabolism can fall as much as 40 To 50 percent below normal but on the Flip side if it’s secreting too many of The hormones metabolism can go up as High as 60 to 100 above normal so Clearly this gland packs quite the punch And the gland in question here is the Thyroid gland so in today’s video we’re Going to talk about how this gland Influences metabolism and how this Affects things like energy levels fat Weight gain and weight loss how it Affects your muscle tissue and even your Heart and can this thyroid gland Actually even affect sexual function Well we’re about to find out so let’s Jump right into this anatomical Awesomeness [Music] So let’s start by taking a look at a Real thyroid gland on this cadaver Dissection so if you take a look here Look how amazing this small little gland Here it’s such a small gland to have Such powerful effects on the human body You can see its proximity to the trachea Or the windpipe and we say that it’s

Inferior or below the atom’s apple and The Adam’s apple is truly called the Larynx so this point right here that I’m Tapping with the probe is the same point On me right there on my neck so Hopefully that gives you a pretty good Idea of where this gland would reside Now if we were to zoom in to the thyroid Gland tissue we would see that it’s Primarily made up of these cells called Follicular cells and these follicular Cells are going to be what produces and Secretes the main thyroid hormones but Let’s kind of take a step back for just A second before we get into what these Thyroid hormones do and talk about what Actually activates this gland to do that We’re going to take a look at the brain So here’s A sagittal cut through the Head and we’re definitely going to take A look at some of the structures in the Central core here but first I want to Mention that we are going to play a Little bit of this game called telephone And what I mean by that is that we’re Going to find that a structure called The hypothalamus is going to tell the Pituitary gland to tell the thyroid Gland to turn on or activate and we’re Going to use an analogy or a little bit Of a comparison to help us with this and Some of you may have even actually lived This comparison because sometimes dads Don’t love it when people mess with

Their thermostats and therefore the Overall temperature of the house so We’re going to say Dad tells the Thermostat to tell the furnace to turn On or activate and hopefully that’ll Help us more fully understand how the Thyroid gland gets activated here so Back to the central core of the brain Right where the probe is you’re going to See is the hypothalamus now the Hypothalamus the central core of the Brain does many amazing things one of Which has helped to maintain homeostasis Throughout the body and one of the Things that helps with this is to Regulate the thyroid gland so this Hypothalamus is going to secrete a Hormone called thyrotropin releasing Hormone or trh now as trh is going to Immediately diffuse into tiny little Capillars or blood vessels right around The hypothalamus and travel down this Little nervous system stock in the blood Vessels here right to the pituitary Gland now that trh from the hypothalamus Is going to tell the pituitary gland to Secrete another hormone called thyroid Stimulating hormone or TSH that TSH is Also going to diffuse into surrounding Blood vessels and then circulate Throughout the body and eventually make It to The thyroid gland and that TSH from the Pituitary is going to tell the thyroid

Gland to activate when we say activate That means start secreting and producing Those main thyroid hormones so if we go Back to that analogy with the furnace we Would essentially say Dad the Hypothalamus secretes the trh to tell The thermostat the pituitary gland to Secrete TSH To then tell The furnace The thyroid gland to turn on and Activate and release its hormones which Is a pretty good analogy I think because When the thyroid hormones start being Secreted increasing metabolism will also Increase body temperature furnace body Temperature it works now like I Mentioned when the thyroid gland is Turned on or activated it will secrete The main thyroid hormones and these main Thyroid hormones have incredibly Powerful metabolic effects on multiple Structures and tissues throughout the Body now these main thyroid hormones are Called and I promise I’m not going to Give you too many more names throughout This video but these main hormones are Called T3 and T4 T3 stands for Tri-iodothyronine and T4 stands for Tetra iodothyronine so we’re just going To call them T3 and T4 but for those of You who are interested try iodothyronine That name comes from that the hormone Has three atoms of iodine where Tetra

Iodothyronine that hormone has four Atoms of iodine so if you have an iodine Deficiency or if you don’t have any Iodine you can’t actually synthesize These hormones and having an iodine Deficiency could cause all sorts of Thyroid related functional problems now If a kid has an iodine deficiency that’s Even a bigger deal because the thyroid Gland really gets involved in growth and Development throughout childhood so that Can cause delays in that development Those important developmental stages Throughout the beginning years of life Now luckily we only need about 50 Milligrams of iodine per year to support Thyroid function and in most developed Countries the salt is iodized meaning it Just contains iodine so most of us don’t Really have an issue getting the proper Amounts of iodine now another thing I do Want to mention kind of as an FYI Because I know I’ve mentioned a ton of Different names like thyrotropin Releasing hormone thyroid stimulating Hormone and now T3 and T4 if you wanted To kind of simplify that and really Focus on it from say like a clinical Perspective like as a clinician with my Patients when I order thyroid tests for Them I usually just get a TSH to see What the pituitary gland’s doing and a T4 to see what the thyroid gland is Doing and I’ll kind of play a little

Game with you guys at the end to kind of Show you how to analyze what’s going on With too much or too little of these Different thyroid hormones so we can Kind of figure out what’s going on but One thing we also need to cover here is How these hormones are regulated but Real quick I want to take a second to Say thank you to a major supporter of This Channel and that’s the sponsor of Today’s video athletic greens athletic Greens is a nutrition company that makes An amazing nutritional drink called ag1 Ag1 has become a major staple of my Morning routine and it is completely Replaced my daily vitamin and this is Much more than just a greens powder it’s Packed with 75 different ingredients Including vitamins minerals probiotics Superfoods and adaptogens now my morning Routine needs to be quick and efficient And this definitely fits into that Because all you have to do is take one Smooth tube dump it in eight ounces of Water Shake It Up and drink it down and As an added bonus it tastes great which Can create problems with your family Trying to take it from you sometimes Without you knowing so you might just Have to get some for them as well now There are many potential benefits from Taking ag1 one of my personal favorites Is that it can help boost and maintain Energy levels throughout the day so if

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Goldilocks principle and what I mean by That is that we don’t want too few of The hormones not too many of them we Want them in just the right range Throughout the bloodstream and we can Use that thermostat and firmness analogy Again to help us with this let’s say That the house temperature is 69 degrees And then Dad sets the thermostat to 70 Degrees we all have a pretty good idea That the thermostat is going to kick on The furnace and tell what happens until The temperature gets up to 70 degrees And then it’s going to shut off let’s Apply that same information to the Thyroid hormones let’s say the thyroid Hormone levels in the blood are a little Low the pituitary and the hypothalamus Will detect this and kick on the thyroid Gland to secrete more of those thyroid Hormones until they get up to the proper Levels and then it will shut off and so This is a really awesome way to tightly Regulate these thyroid hormone levels so You don’t have a ton of fluctuations Because we all know that if we had a Really crappy heating system let’s say We set the temperature again to 70 Degrees but the thermostat didn’t kick On the furnace until it was all the way Down to 50 degrees or the opposite end Of the spectrum it didn’t shut off until It was up to 80 or 90 degrees that would Not be a fun situation because the

Temperature throughout the house would Be fluctuating like crazy but instead we Tightly regulate the house temperature Just like we would tightly regulate Those thyroid hormone levels so I think We set the stage well enough now to Where we can finally start talking about Some of the specific functions of these Thyroid hormones now we’ve strongly Implied that the thyroid hormones helped To regulate metabolism or in other words Help to increase metabolism but what Does that really mean and how should we Approach this well I think we should Start at the cellular level because if We can figure out how these thyroid Hormones influence the metabolism of the Cells we can apply apply that to how the Cells process things like carbohydrates And fats and even apply that to larger Structures like how does that affect Adipose or fatty tissue muscular tissue And other tissues and structures Throughout the body and keep in mind That your overall metabolic rate or your Basal metabolic rate is the totality of The metabolism or how all the cells Throughout your body are processing Energy so looking at it from the Cellular standpoint or the cellular Perspective first kind of makes sense And these thyroid hormones influence or Affect the majority of the cells Throughout the body and one of the

Things that they do is help to activate Or turn on multiple genes and what we’re Going to see is that the cell will start Building things it’ll start building Things like protein enzymes structural Proteins transport proteins and other Substances and so if you look at it from This perspective when the cell is Building all these different proteins And other substances that’s going to Require energy which will raise Metabolism of the cell if we take that a Little bit further A lot of those proteins like the enzymes And the transport proteins often require Energy to perform the work of the cell That will also require energy and Therefore also increase the metabolism Of the cell another awesome thing that The thyroid hormones do within the cell Is that they increase the size and Number of mitochondria and those of you Who know what the mitochondria is we Often nickname it the PowerHouse of the Cell because this little organelle helps To utilize carbohydrates and lipids to Process ATP which is the energy currency Of the cell and if we’re increasing the Metabolic rate of the cell we want more ATP to support that increased metabolism Thyroid hormones have powerful effects On carbohydrates it will increase the Rate at which cells bring in Carbohydrates it will also enhance

Glycolysis which is when the cells take Glucose a type of carbohydrate and Utilize that to produce more ATP it also Enhances gluconeogenesis this primarily Happens in the liver and this is where The liver produces more carbohydrates it Will also increase the rate at which the Carbohydrates are absorbed across the Gut and into the bloodstream so in Summary these thyroid hormones pretty Much stimulate or enhance almost all Aspects of carbohydrate metabolism not Only do these thyroid hormones help to Enhance the utilization of carbohydrates They also help to enhance the Utilization of fats and what we’ll see Is that the thyroid hormones will help To pull fat from the fat storage in the Form of free fatty acids and these free Fatty acids can then circulate Throughout the blood and then be Utilized for energy by the cells now if We’re pulling fat from the fat storage That will help facilitate weight loss or At least help to maintain a healthy Weight when we have those normal levels Of the thyroid hormone now another cool Thing that the thyroid hormones do is They will actually lower or bring down Cholesterol and triglyceride levels in The blood and if you’ve ever had your Cholesterol tested you have a pretty Good idea that we don’t want our Cholesterol levels to get too high so

Let’s have a little checkpoint here Because many of you are probably Thinking about the potential drawbacks Of having something called Hypothyroidism which is having too low Of the thyroid hormone and if we use one Of our previous examples if somebody Were too low with the thyroid hormones Their cholesterol levels could go up and That could increase their risk of Certain cardiovascular conditions now Some of the obvious drawbacks is Metabolism is going to go down we’re not Going to utilize carbohydrates as well Not going to utilize fats as well and You’ll often see weight gain with people Who have hypothyroidism now with many of Our students my patients and even in our YouTube videos we often will talk about Diet and exercise and how much that can Influence weight gain or weight loss now We definitely have some level of control With weight gain and weight loss but Somebody who has hypothyroidism that Makes it even that much more difficult To lose weight just with diet and Exercise so a lot of times when my Patients have a low level of thyroid Hormone they really like it when their Levels get to those normal ranges Because it makes it easier to shed some Of that weight now many people will Focus on the drawbacks of hypothyroidism And they’ll think just give me those

Thyroid hormones increase my metabolism And everything’s going to be great but Remember the Goldilocks principle not Too few not too many just right there Are health conditions and drawbacks to Being hyperthyroid or having Hyperthyroidism and so it’s not like When somebody’s hypothyroidism we just Jack up the thyroid levels to these Astronomical levels we get them to Within the normal ranges so as we go Throughout these other examples kind of Think of it from the perspective of okay What would happen if I went too high With the thyroid hormone versus if I Went too low the thyroid hormones also Have an effect on cardiovascular Structures as well as the heart due to The increased metabolic activity many of The blood vessels to the tissues will Vasodilate or open up delivering more Oxygen to accommodate that increased Metabolism as well as to be able to pull Waste products from the cells Metabolizing and creating those waste Products the heart will also contract More forcefully as well as increase in Strength heart rate tends to go up with Thyroid hormone as well but again coming Back to our balance here if we had Hypothyroidism that would create less Contractility of the heart maybe Decreased strength also heart rate would Be lower if we had too much heart rate

Would be too high and if you think of Somebody who had hyperthyroidism for Years and years and years and it wasn’t Controlled eventually the heart can Start to break down the proteins within The myocardium which is the heart muscle Will start to break down and you can Actually get things like myocardial Failure respiratory rate or breathing Rate will also increase with thyroid Hormones which makes sense to help Facilitate getting more oxygen into the Bloodstream to help accommodate the Increased metabolism we’ll also see that The gut motility how much the guts are Contracting and moving food along Increases with thyroid hormone and so Somebody who actually has hypothyroidism Their gut motility will actually slow a Bit and things don’t pass through as Quickly so they tend to actually get Constipated whereas somebody with Hyperthyroidism their guts are Contracting more frequently and Forcefully and things are passing Through too quickly and they often will Get diarrhea thyroid hormones also Affect skeletal muscle tissues and with Slight increases of thyroid hormones We’ll see that the skeletal muscles will Contract a little bit more quickly and Vigorously but again with excessive Levels we we can have a problem with Hyperthyroidism because the skeletal

Muscles can actually weaken due to Protein breakdown now with Hypothyroidism the muscles will actually Contract more sluggishly and react more Slowly and you’re probably not going to Be surprised that thyroid hormones have An effect on the nervous system and Normal levels of those thyroid hormones Have a positive effect on cerebral Function but excess amounts can cause Things like anxiety agitation kind of Feeling fidgety even some people have Experienced things like paranoia now if They’re too low or hypothyroid we can Get things like somnolence which is Feeling tired lethargic and just kind of Feeling blah and what about sexual Function of course the thyroid hormones Are also going to affect sexual function So you’re probably again not going to be That surprised to hear me say we want Those hormones within the proper ranges So that our genital structures in our Reproductive physiology works properly Now let’s say a male has hypothyroidism That could affect things or at least Cause decreased sex drive in libido Whereas hyperthyroidism could cause Impotence in a male impotence would be An inability to get an erection with Females with hypothyroidism you could Also see a decrease in libido and sex Drive hyperthyroidism would tend to have Irregularities in the menstrual cycle

But you can also have irregularities in The menstrual cycle with hypothyroidism In females so looking at the menstrual Cycle alone is not a really good Indicator of hyper versus hypothyroidism So hopefully that gave you a lot of cool Information on just how powerful the Thyroid gland in its hormones are and How it affects multiple tissues and Structures throughout the human body now As I mentioned earlier when I’m checking For thyroid conditions on patients I Really focus just on two hormones when I Do a blood draw I usually draw the TSH Which is the thyroid stimulating hormone Released from the pituitary gland and I Really focus on the T4 which is one of The main thyroid hormones secreted from The actual thyroid gland now let me give You a couple of scenarios to help you Kind of assess with these blood levels Like might mean let’s say I have a Patient and I get the blood levels back In the T4 from the thyroid gland is Really low but the TSH from the Pituitary is really high what that’s Telling me is that we have a problem With the thyroid gland because it’s not Responding to the TSH telling it to turn On and that would be called primary Hypothyroidism because we have the Problem with the thyroid itself let’s Say in another scenario I have low T4 From the thyroid but also I have low TSH

From the pituitary gland that implies That there’s a problem with the Pituitary gland because the pituitary Gland isn’t telling the thyroid gland to Actually turn on and do its thing the Thyroid’s over here waiting like hey Pituitary I’m ready but the pituitary Isn’t secreting the proper TSH to Activate the thyroid gland and that Would be called secondary hypothyroidism Let’s go to another scenario let’s say The T4 from the thyroid gland is really High but the TSH from the pituitary is Really low that would imply a problem With the thyroid gland that the thyroid Gland is kind of Behaving on its own Without the TSH it’s over secreting the Pituitary is like I’m not going to tell You to turn on even more because we Already have too much of this thyroid Hormone that’s almost like having your Thermostat set at 70 degrees for heat But the temperature is already 85 Degrees your thermostat isn’t going to Tell your furnace to kick on even more In that scenario let me give you one Other scenario let’s say the thyroid Gland or the T4 from the thyroid is Really high but the TSH is also very High that’s implying a problem with the Pituitary gland over secreting TSH and Then the thyroid gland is just following Suit being told what to do a lot of Times that’s a pituitary tumor that’s

Secreting too much too much TSH that Scenario is kind of like you set the Thermostat in your house to 85 degrees And the furnace is just kicking on to Obey the thermostat that so hopefully That gives you some cool scenarios to Think about if you’ve ever got a thyroid Blood draw and hopefully you guys Learned some amazing things from this Video If you feel the need like always like And subscribe leave some comments below If you’re interested in athletic greens We’ll also have that information in the Description below and of course we’ll See in the next video [Music] [Music]

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